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Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Cytotoxicity of Phaleria macrocarpa (Boerl.) Scheff Fruit

Key notes

  • Traditionally, P. macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl has been used to control cancer, impotency, hemorrhoids, diabetes mellitus, allergies, liver and hearth disease, kidney disorders, blood diseases, acne, stroke, migraine, and various skin diseases [5]. Based on the ethopharmacological aspects the boiled water extract of the Phaleria macrocarpa fruit used to treat or alleviate the above diseases symptoms.
  • In our investigation into biological activities of Indonesian plants, we report here the total phenolic and flavonoid compounds, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity activities of the extracts from different parts of P. macrocarpa fruit.
  • According to the results obtained from anti-inflammatory assay, P. macrocarpa extract appeared to be potent as anti-inflammatory agent and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report on anti inflammatory activity of P. macrocarpa fruit. The ability of P. macrocarpa fruit as anti-inflammatory agent might be due to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds or other phytochemicals such as terpenoid compound which could play a role as anti-inflammatory agents. In vitro studies have confirmed that the flavonoids were able to inhibits nitric oxide production and the expression of iNOS but their strength depends on their structure or subclass of flavonoids
  • Phaleria macrocarpa potency as an anticancer agent has been known empirically for generations, and its stem, fruit, seed or leaf boiled water extract have been used by people in Indonesia [31]. Faried et al. [32] have isolated gallic acid from fruits of P. macrocarpa and shown that it selectively induces cancer cell death in various cancer cells, such as human esophageal cancer (TE-2), gastric cancer (MKN-28), colon cancer (HT-29), breast cancer (MCF-7), cervix cancer (CaSki), and malignant brain tumor.
  • Pericarp and mesocarp from P. macrocarpa fruit show good antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. These activities might be due to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds with various appreciable amounts.
  • The cytotoxicity activity indicated that all parts of fruit showed variable results and that the seed is a potential anticancer agent.
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