Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Cytotoxicity of Phaleria macrocarpa (Boerl.) Scheff Fruit
P. macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl has been used to control
cancer, impotency, hemorrhoids, diabetes mellitus, allergies,
liver and hearth disease, kidney disorders, blood diseases,
acne, stroke, migraine, and various skin diseases .
Based on the ethopharmacological aspects the boiled
water extract of the Phaleria macrocarpa fruit used to
treat or alleviate the above diseases symptoms.
In our investigation
into biological activities of Indonesian plants, we
report here the total phenolic and flavonoid compounds,
antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity activities of
the extracts from different parts of P. macrocarpa fruit.
According to the results obtained from anti-inflammatory
assay, P. macrocarpa extract appeared to be potent as
anti-inflammatory agent and to the best of our knowledge
this is the first report on anti inflammatory activity of P.
macrocarpa fruit. The ability of P. macrocarpa fruit as
anti-inflammatory agent might be due to the presence of
phenolic and flavonoid compounds or other phytochemicals
such as terpenoid compound which could play a role
as anti-inflammatory agents. In vitro studies have confirmed
that the flavonoids were able to inhibits nitric
oxide production and the expression of iNOS but their
strength depends on their structure or subclass of flavonoids
Phaleria macrocarpa potency as an anticancer agent has
been known empirically for generations, and its stem,
fruit, seed or leaf boiled water extract have been used by
people in Indonesia . Faried et al.  have isolated
gallic acid from fruits of P. macrocarpa and shown that it
selectively induces cancer cell death in various cancer
cells, such as human esophageal cancer (TE-2), gastric
cancer (MKN-28), colon cancer (HT-29), breast cancer
(MCF-7), cervix cancer (CaSki), and malignant brain
Pericarp and mesocarp from P. macrocarpa fruit show
good antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. These
activities might be due to the presence of phenolic and
flavonoid compounds with various appreciable amounts.
The cytotoxicity activity indicated that all parts of fruit
showed variable results and that the seed is a potential
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